Indiana University Bloomington
IU school of Optometry Visual T. Rowan Candy
Professor of Optometry
Cognitive Science and Neuroscience Programs
Principal Investigator
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Learn about our program of research

Our research program is designed to understand the normal and abormal development of the human visual system. In our work funded by the National Eye Institute, we have completed a series of studies of typical retinal visual experience during infancy and early childhood (Wang & Candy, 2005; Tondel & Candy, 2007 & 2008; Candy & Bharadwaj, 2007; Wang, Candy, Teel & Jacobs, 2008; Candy, Wang & Ravikumar 2009; Wang & Candy, submitted) and are now stepping on to explore the relationship and coupling between accommodation and vergence motor responses during development. This work will reveal how infants are able to compensate for their apparent mismatch in accommodation and vergence demands (due to their typical hyperopia and narrow IPD). The conclusions will have direct implications for predicting the onset of refractive esotropia in the clinic and for understanding the ways in which infants compensate for the dynamically changing mismatch between any percept of space based on accommodative demand or effort and one based on vergence demand or effort. Two studies of this relationship have been completed to date (Bharadwaj & Candy, 2008 & 2009).

We are also conducting studies of the spatial information that infants and young children are able to extract and use when interacting with 2 and 3D objects. We are looking at infants’ sensitivity to orientation as contours extend across space, young children’s ability to discriminate optotypes from commonly used commercial visual acuity tests, and young children’s ‘first person’ experiences while they play with toys with adults.

Our recent lab publications (Full PubMed listing)

  1. Attention and Visual Motor Integration in Young Children with Uncorrected Hyperopia. Kulp MT, Ciner E, Maguire M, Pistilli M, Candy TR, Ying GS, Quinn G, Cyert L, Moore B; Vision in Preschoolers-Hyperopia in Preschoolers Study Group. Optom Vis Sci. 2017 Oct;94(10):965-970. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001123
  2. The heterophoria of 3-5 year old children as a function of viewing distance and target type. Troyer ME, Sreenivasan V, Peper TJ, Candy TR.Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2017 Jan;37(1):7-15. doi: 10.1111/opo.12342. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
  3. Adaptation of horizontal eye alignment in the presence of prism in young children. Wu Y, Sreenivasan V, Babinsky EE, Candy TR. J Vis. 2016 Aug 1;16(10):6. doi: 10.1167/16.10.6
  4. Visual Function of Moderately Hyperopic 4- and 5-Year-Old Children in the Vision in Preschoolers - Hyperopia in Preschoolers Study Ciner EB, Kulp MT, Maguire MG, Pistilli M, Candy TR, Moore B, Ying GS, Quinn G, Orlansky G, Cyert L; Vision In Preschoolers - Hyperopia In Preschoolers (VIP-HIP) Study Group Writing Committee. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct;170:143-152. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2016.07.017. Epub 2016 Jul 29
  5. Objective Measurement of Fusional Vergence Ranges and Heterophoria in Infants and Preschool Children. Sreenivasan V, Babinsky EE, Wu Y, Candy TR Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 May 1;57(6):2678-88. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17877
  6. Vergence Adaptation to Short-Duration Stimuli in Early Childhood. Babinsky E, Sreenivasan V, Candy TR. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Mar;57(3):920-7. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17767
  7. Sensitivity of vergence responses of 5- to 10-week-old human infants. Seemiller ES, Wang J, Candy TR. J Vis. 2016;16(3):20. doi: 10.1167/16.3.20
  8. Uncorrected Hyperopia and Preschool Early Literacy: Results of the Vision in Preschoolers-Hyperopia in Preschoolers (VIP-HIP) Study. VIP-HIP Study Group, Kulp MT, Ciner E, Maguire M, Moore B, Pentimonti J, Pistilli M, Cyert L, Candy TR, Quinn G, Ying GS. Ophthalmology. 2016 Apr;123(4):681-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.11.023. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
  9. Babinsky E, Sreenivasan V, Candy TR (2015) Near Heterophoria in early childhood. Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science. Jan 29;56(2): 1406-15.
  10. Manh V, Chen AM, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Candy TR (2015) Accommodative performance of children with unilateral amblyopia. Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science. Jan 27;56(2):1193-207.
  11. Toner KN, Lynn MJ, Candy TR, Hutchinson AK (2014) The Handy Eye Check: a mobile medical application to test visual acuity in children. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Opthalmology and Strabismus. Jun;18(3):258-60.
  12. Babinsky E, Candy TR (2013) Why do only some hyperopes become strabismic? Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science. Jul 24;54(7):4941-55.
  13. Barrett BT, Bradley A, Candy TR (2013) The relationship between anisometropia and amblyopia. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Sep;36:120-58.
  14. Bharadwaj SR, Sravani NG, Little JA, Narasaiah A, Wong V, Woodburn R, Candy TR (2013) Empirical variability in the calibration of slope-based eccentric photorefraction. Journal of the Optical Society of America A Optics, Image Science, and Vision. May 1;30(5):923-31.
  15. Cromelin CH, Candy TR, Lynn MJ, Harrington CL Hutchinson AK (2012) The handy eye chart: a new visual acuity test for use in children. Opthalmology. Oct; 119(10):2009-13.
  16. Candy TR (2012) Which hyperopic patients are destined for trouble? Journal of American Association for Pediatric Opthalmology and Strabismus. Apr;16(2):107-9.
  17. Feng L, Candy TR, Yang Y (2012) Severe myopic anisometropia in a Chinese family. Optometry and Vision Science. Apr;89(4):507-11.
  18. Candy TR, Gray KH, Hohenbary CC, Lyon DW (2012) The accommodative lag of the young hyperopic patient. Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science. Jan 17;53(1):143-9.
  19. Bharadwaj SR, Wang J, Candy TR (2011) Pupil responses to near visual demand during human visual development. J Vis. Apr 11;11(4):6.
  20. Wang J, Candy TR (2005) Higher-order monochromatic aberrations of the human infant eye. Journal of Vision. 5(6):543-555.
  21. Tondel GM, Candy TR (2007) Human infants' accommodation responses to dynamic stimuli. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science. Feb:48(2):949-956.
  22. Candy TR, Bharadwaj SR (2007) The stability of steady-state accommodation in human infants. Journal of Vision. 7/11/4. 
  23. Wang J, Candy TR, Teel DFW, Jacobs RJ (2008) "Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2263-2270.
  24. Candy TR, Wang J, Ravikumar S (2009) Retinal image quality and postnatal visual experience during infancy. Optometry & Vision Science. 86, 566-571.
  25. Bharadwaj, SR, Candy, TR (2009). Accommodative and vergence responses to conflicting blur and disparity stimuli during development. Journal of Vision, 9(11):4, 1-18,
  26. Wang J, Candy TR (2010) The sensitivity of the human infant’s accommodation system. Investigative Opthamology & Visual Science. Jun;51(6):3309-17
  27. Candy TR, Mishoulam SR, Nosofsky RM, Dobson V. (2011) Adult discrimination performance for pediatric acuity test optotypes Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Jun 16;52(7):4307-13.
  28. Bharadwaj SR, Candy TR. (2011) The effect of lens-induced anisometropia on accommodation and vergence during human visual development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1;52(6):3595-603.
  29. Baker TJ, Norcia AM, Candy TR. (2011) Orientaton tuning in the visual cortex of 3-month-old human infants. Vision Res. 2;51(5):470-8.

Guest editorials:

  • Barrett, TB., Candy, TR, McGraw, PV & Bradley, A. (2005) Probing the causes of visual acuity loss in patients diagnosed with functional amblyopia. Guest Editorial in Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 25: 175-78.
  • Mutti DO, Candy R, Cotter SA, Haegerstrom-Portnoy G. (2007) Infant and child hyperopia. Guest Editorial in Optometry & Vision Science. Feb;84(2):80.
  • Dobson V, Candy TR, Hartmann EE, Mayer DL, Miller JM, Quinn GE (2009) Infant and child vision research present status and future directions Guest editorial in Optometry & Vision Science, 86, 559-560.

Book Chapter:

Candy TR ‘Development of the Visual System’ in ‘ Visual Development, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Pediatric Patient’. Ed. Duckman, R. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Spring 2006.


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Funding supporting the Lab

National Eye Institute: ROI EY014460 Candy (PI)
7/03-2/13   Accommodation and Defocus in the
                 Infant Visual System

National Eye Institute: R21 EY017843 Smith (PI)
2/07-1/10   Measuring Active Vision in
                 Toddlers and Young Children

Fight fro Sight AwardFight For Sight Postdoctoral Fellowship awarded to Shrikant Bharadwaj 08/09

Lab Phone number: 812-855-4959
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